Poland.

 

For full size map, please visit: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/europe/poland_po100.jpg

Oberman Families From Poland.  Revised 7 Jan 2004.

Brzeziny, Poland.

Aron –Majer Oberman, his wife Rywka and his daughters Chana, Chawa and Ruchel-Laja.

Drogichin, Poland.

Aharon Meir, Kalman, Khasha Hendel and Leiba.

Warsaw, Poland.

Grandparents Leibish and Rachel Oberman, Parents Shlomo and Raizel Oberman, of Abraham and Miriam Oberman in Israel. Their son Shlomo. Abraham's Siblings:Eliezer (Luzor) b 1924. Rachel B 1926.Uncle. Prof Julian z"l 1963 in New York. Cousins. Shmuel, Anya and Mietek , all z"l.

 Warsaw, Poland.

A Mr. Oberman m. Chana, 5 children Avram Naftali, Israel, Joseph, Mordechai, Jonah.Avram Naftali m. Chava (bat Chana), 2 children Shlomo Zvi, Joseph.

Warsaw, Poland.

Arie Leibus Oberman, son Israel Joseph Oberman, grandson Luiz Oberman, great-grandson Italo Oberman.

Ciechanow, Poland. 75 Kilometres NNW of Warsaw.

Grandfather Avram Behr Oberman.Father Max d. 11 Jun 1999 from Ciechanow, Poland. Son Edward M. Oberman.
Czestochowa, Poland.

Hersch Leib Oberman m. Leah Esser, children Sam, John Julius (Johanan), Henrietta. Sam m. Esther, 4 children Vivian, Herbert, Milton, Anna. Henrietta m. Benjamin Besser, 4 children Rachel Rose, Molly Margaret, Lillie, Harry Leopold.Henrietta also m. Samuel Danziger, 1 child David.John Julius son Herbert Lewis grandchildren, Stewart Jay, Jeffrey Thomas, Jonatan David.

Czestochowa, Poland.

GGF/M Henry and Rose Oberman GF Hersch Leib (Leo) Oberman. One of children b Liepzig,Germany.. Family moved to Czestochowa, Poland

Czestochowa, Poland.
Samuel Oberman married Esther. They had four sons, Gustave, Philip, Solomon and Isaac. Gustave m. Sonia, Philip m. Isabel, Solomon m. Ruth, Isaac m. Barbara. Grandchildren, Doreen, Michelle, Helene, Steven, Alan, Susan, Arlene and Stuart.
Czestochowa, Poland.

Grandparents Joseph and Geitel Oberman immigrated to the US, New York, around 1919, Children Selma (Sarah) and Seymour. Selma’s children, Charles and Joseph Goldstein.

 Lublin, Poland.

Aaron Oberman's son Israel Oberman married Chaya Slota Goodmark and they had six children. Isaac, Harry, Max, Ethel, Leah and Raisa.Isaac m. Sarah Kapner, 3 children Helen, Ethyl and Moses.Harry m. Annie Ankerman, 6 children Rose, Fannie, Gussie, Lena, Paul, Alex.Max m. Lena, 4 children Samuel, Maurice, Harry, Eva.Ethyl m. Aaron Meir Firetag, 7 children Helen, Sally, Ruth, Harry, Joseph, Israel, Melvin.Leah m. Mr. Weisberg, 3 children Israel, Sam, Felix.Raisa m. Mr. Weisberg 2 children Sam, Aaron.Paul (Pinya) m. Gladys Schlussel from Sondermirsch, Poland. Paul's son Harvey m. Janet Givner. Harvey's children are Lee (Moshe Arye), Paul, Bruce and Claire Robin.

Warsaw/Brest Litovsk, Poland.

Abraham (ben Moshe) Oberman m. Chippa (Bat Ephraim) Bernstein, 4 children Anne, Frances, Frank, Jack.Anne m. Charles Fox, 2 children Norman, Melvin.Frances m Leo Shoot, 2 children Geraldine, Barry.Frances also m. Sol Hennick.Frank m. Gilda Kramer, 2 children Harold, Helen.Jack m. Sarah Brodie, 2 children Milton, Frank.

Lodz/Kielce, Poland.

Eliemelech Oberman b. 1894 m. Chana Mitelman. Son Henri grandsons Alain (wife Bettina) and Phillipe,great-grandchildren Sacha, Samuel. Daughter (m. Edmond Lelte) grand children Jean-Pierre, Nicole.

Kielce, Poland.

Rabbi Hillel Moishe Oberman . A son Rubin m. Raychel ?. Grandchildren Irving, Harry, Fanny. Irving m. Priscilla, 2 children Martin and Mona.

Lodz, Poland.

Leib Oberman, son Herman (m. Eve Lederman), son Max, daughter Molly.Max 2 children Harold and Herbert.

 Tomaszow Mazowiecka, Poland.

Elja Chaim Oberman, son Isaac, grandson Jacob m. Esther grand children Jonathon, Elissa, grandson Elja Chaim.

Radomsko,Poland.

Abe Oberman b. 1884 peddler Registered Voter 1918 Lived at 7 Kaliska Street. Hersz Oberman b. 1886 peddler Registered Voter 1918 Lived at 2 Zabia Street. 

Jewish History of Poland. (Adapted from 1938 Edition of Vallentines Jewish Encyclopedia.) When this book was published there were 3 million Jews in Poland about 10% of the population. A sorry tale. The publishers at the time would have had no idea as to what would happen to the Jews of Poland. Jews have been connected during all of the troubled times of Poland since the 9th. Century. There may be some credence to the story that some of the Jews were from what had been the Kazar kingdom. Others coming from the Crimea, Greece, Syria, Turkey and Egypt. But the majority migrated from the south-west and west beginning with the period of the Crusades and through the 14th. Century. Like other lands developing in eastern Europe during the 12th. and 13th. Centuries, Poland made use of its Jews for economic purposes. Coins bearing Hebrew letters date from this period, and Jews were known to have possessed landed estates. Toward the end of the 13th. Century the forces favouring Jews and those opposed to them began to take shape. The Dukes who ruled over the provinces of divided Poland realized the need of a middle class and offered encouraging privileges to German and Jewish traders. The model charter was the one granted by Boleslav the Pious, Duke of Great Poland (Posen and Kalisz), in 1264 . Under the direct protection of the ruler as servi camerae the Jews were guaranteed freedom of trade and transit. A special judge protected their interests and punishment for harming a Jew was the same as that for harming a nobleman. The Jew and his religion were also protected by this charter. Breslau in 1267 objected to these extensive privileges and urged discrimination against the Jews The Church Council at and advocated the Badge, restrictions in residence and economic opportunity. As long as the central power grew in strength the Jewish population was fairly secure. In 1320 the Polish provinces were reunited, and under Cazimir the Great ( 1333 – 1370 ) the country entered upon a period of expansion and development. Cazimir renewed and strengthened the Charter of 1264 , aplying it to united Poland. Subsequently it was reissued on several occasions, especially in 1364, 1367 , and 1453 . But the growing influence of the Catholic church under the Yaghellos practically nullified the effects of the Charter. The struggle for and against the Jews became a phase of the struggle for and against centralization. The Church resorted to threats to the King, and to accusations of ritual murder and host-desecration against the Jews. The nobility in its diets legislated against the employment of Jews as officials and tax-farmers. The burghers through the city governments restricted Jews, local trade and civic privileges, and occasionally also engaged in riots, the local clergy usually providing the necessary excuse. In 1399 thirteen Jews of Posen were burned because of an accusation of desecration of the Host and for centuries the Jews of the city had to pay an annual commemorative fine. In 1407 a charge of ritual murder led to murder and robbery in Cracow. The council of Kalisz in 1420 re-enacted the decrees of the Breslau Council, and had greater success in enforcing them. In 1454 the Church under Cardinal Oleschinski and John Capistrano won a victory when much of the protection of the Jews and the renewal of the privileges granted the year before were rescinded. In 1463 the Jews of Cracow and Lemberg suffered at the hands of bands on the way to fight the Turks. In 1496 what amounted to a ghetto was established in Cracow and in the course of the next century in other cities. Sigismund I and Sigismund II were favourably disposed to their Jewish Subjects but the influence of the Christian merchants compelled them to restrict Jewish Trading to certain articles and stood in the way of giving protection to the Jews. The situation was made worse by the efforts of the clergy to fight against the spread of Protestantism by attacking al non-Catholic doctrines. They saw vast Jewish efforts at proselytization in the few cases of conversion to Judaism. The constitution passed by the Seym of 1538 , reaffirmed in 1562 and 1565 , incorporated all the commercial and religious restrictions which aimed at the destruction of Jewish life in Poland. Nevertheless, for a while, even after the extinction of the Yaghello Dynasty, the Jews retained the protection of the Crown. Stephen Batory ( 1576 – 1586 ) forbade the raising of the ritual-murder and host desecration charges and commanded that the Jews be restored to their former position of protection and commercial opportunity. Thereafter, however, the nobility became the masters of Poland since the system of an elective kingship placed power in their hands. The Jesuits now joined hands openly with the Christian merchants to destroy the position of the Jews. Ritual murder accusations and riots occurred with the terrible frequency. The consequence was that the Jews sought the more stable protection of the great nobility, settling on their estates which they undertook to manage, or in the small towns and villages where they farmed the inns and public houses. This in turn made them seem to be the oppressors of the peasants, so that when, in 1648 , the Cossacks under Chmielnicki rose in rebellion against the ill-treatment to which their Polish lords had been subjecting them, they vented their rage against the Jews as well as the Poles. For a year and a half the south-eastern portion of the Polish dominions, the Ukraine, was devastated by the Cossacks and their Tartar allies. The Jews were pitilessly destroyed. No sooner was this invasion ended than the Russians and Swedes invaded Poland from the North-east and again the Jews were victims both at the hands of the invaders and of the Poles who accused them of collusion with the Swedes because the latter treated the Jews more kindly. The ten years between 1648 and 1658 destroyed hundreds of communities and hundreds of thousands of lives. Western Europe was flooded with the fugitives from Poland. More over, the brilliant intellectual life which had characterized Polish Jewry started to decline. The restoration of peace and the goodwill of King John Casimir enabled the Jews to recuperate to some extent. But, as the Jews returned to normal though much reduced circumstances, anti-jewishness also returned to pre-Chmielnicki conditions. In 1664 an attack on the Jews took place in Lemberg (Lvov, Lviv) in which, as often happens, the students for the priesthood took part. Ritual murder accusations were resumed. In connection with one such charge The Jews sent an emissary to complain to the Pope. Cardinal Ganganelli, subsequently Pope Clement XIV, was commissioned to investigate. His report in 1759 was a complete vindication of the Jews from any such charge at that or any other time. In the meantime the disorders within the Polish kingdom had weakened it. It could not defend itself against the renewed activity of the Cossacks encouraged by Russia, so eventually Poland fell a prey to the predatory nations that surrounded it. During the period of unrest the Polish government found time to pay unwelcome attention to the Jews, and disbanded the government of the Council of Four Lands. During the first period of Polish independence the Jewry of that land rose from insignificance to leadership in the life of European Jewry. In the 13th . Century Jewish students from Poland were to be found in Western seats of Jewish learning. As the Jewish community grew by immigration from the South and West, scholars found a home there too. Only during the 16th. Century did Poland become completely independent of the rest of Jewry. By the time the Jews of Poland had developed a language of their own, Yiddish being the original German of the immigrants mixed with Hebrew. Yeshivot (Jewish Theological Seminaries) sprang up in various parts of the country which, beginning with the 17th. Century supplied Western communities with rabbinic leadership. Characteristic of Polish and Lithuanian Talmudic study was the exaggeration of pilpul ( casuistry, dialectics, hair splitting). It represented an unparalleled mastery of Rabbinic literature, the highest goal of the Polish Jew . Secular knowledge was rare, and was usually confined to the study of medicine in a foreign university. Poland produced the outstanding Talmudists and commentators on rabbinic law. Among these were Shalom Shakna (ca 1500 – 1558 ) whois credited with founding pilpulism as well as the Council of Four Lands, Moses Isserles, Solomon Luria, Mordechai Jaffe, Joshua Hacohen Falk, Meir of Lublin ( 1554 – 1616 ) and Samuel Edels. Further legalistic works were written during the same century by Joel Sirkis, David Halevi, and Shabbethai Kohen. The greatest product of Polish rabbinism was the Gaon Elijah of Vilna, for during the 18th . Century Lithuania rather than Poland represented the height of rabbinic learning. Economically, asa well as, culturally Polish Jewry never recovered from the horrible decade 1648 – 1658. Like the rest of Jewry, that of Poland yielded to the glowing promise of Shabbethai Zevi. Cabbalistic studies had always found a ready ear. Introduced into Poland by immigrant Italians, such studies had been encouraged by Isiah Horowitz and his son Sheftel. The Practical Cabbalah of the Ari had found adherents among the learned and the masses. But amongst the latter, especially after the troublesome period, Kabbalah degenerated into magic lore and superstition fostered by a host of Miracle Workers (Baale Shem ). Several imposters, above all Jacob Frank, appeared who carried on the Shabbethian propaganda. The emotionalism upon which this was based took the place of the arid talmudism of the northern part of Poland and Lithuania, and prepared the ground for the teachings of Israel Baal Shem-Tov (Besht ) and the Chassidic Movement. This movement caused a split in Polish Jewry, the Northern provinces especially Lithuania, taking a definite stand against its spread. Though the breach between Chassidim and their opponents, the Mitnagdim was never quite healed, it resulted in no unbridgeable gulf sincebefore long both groups found it necessary to unite against the common enemy in the form of the Haskalah.

Partitions of Poland.

The First Partition in August 1772 divided one third of Poland between Russia Prussia and Austria. The Second Partition in January 1793 was mostly to the advantage of Russia, the Austrians on this occasion not acquiring any lands. In 1794 a Polish uprising led by Kosciuszko led to the occupation of the rest of Poland, which was divided between the three Autocracies in the Third Partition in October 1795. After the defeat of Napoleon and the collapse of his puppet state the Grand Duchy of Warsaw (1807 – 1814 ) there was a Fourth Partition by which the Russians extended their region Westwards, thereby including Warsaw.

Warsaw was in Prussian Poland from 1795 to 1807.

With the partition of Poland, the history of its Jews became practically identified, respectively with that of Russian, Prussian and Austrian Jewry. The last two governments at first treated the Polish Jews as somewhat inferior to their previous Jewish Subjects. Russia had to strike out on a completely new path, since till then the Russian frontier had been practically closed to Jews. To the limited extent to which Poland maintained its identity, it is possible to speak of Polish Jewish history even after the partitions.

The Grand Duchy of Warsaw established by Napoleon in 1807 had no memory of the patriotism shown by Berek Joselovicz and his Jewish fellow soldiers. At the first opportunity (1808 ) the rights which had been promised to the Jews in the spirit of the French Revolution were curtailed. The repeated petitions of the rich and "enlightened" Warsaw Jews for better treatment than that accorded other Jews were also rejected. After 1815 a weak attempt was made by Russia to detach the Jews from their pro-Polish sympathies. Nevertheless many Jews participated in the Polish Revolt of 1830, and a Jewish regiment defended Warsaw side–by-side with the Poles. The revolt was crushed and anti-jewishness revived. The Russian government no longer felt the need of meeting the wishes of the Jewish population. At this time Moses Montefiore entered a separate protest against the treatment of the Jews in Poland. This, too, was the time when the Jews began to develop the economic life of the Polish Territory in banking and manufactures. During the revolutionary movement of 1860 the help of the Jews was again welcomed. Meisels and Jastrow, the Rabbis of Warsaw, took an active part in the revolt. But, by this time, the Jewish masses had lost faith in Polish promises, and their support of the Polish cause was lukewarm. In 1881 there was a Pogrom in Warsaw. Among the upper classes of the Jews, the admiration for Polish culture continued, Polish nationalism being given preference over Jewish nationalism. Yet, antisemitism and the economic boycott of the Jews increased among the Polish population. Nevertheless the Poles were enraged when, in 1912, the Jews refused to vote for antisemitic Polish candidates in the Duma.

 

At the outbreak of WW I, Jews and Poles continued an attitude to each other respectively of suspicion and hostility. The Poles, now hopeful of regaining a measure of autonomy, looked upon the Jews as Germans, Austrians and Russians, despite the fact that a number of Jews were active in the movement for Polish independence. The Jewish masses feared falling into the hands of an unfriendly Poland. Further complications were created by the desire of Germany and Austria at first to gain the favour of the Jews and subsequently, the favour of the Poles. Attacks upon the Jews multiplied, the Jews being blamed for every st-back to Polish Hopes. There were Pogroms in Cracow and various other partsof Galicia ( 1916 – 1917), and they reached the status of general persecution as soon as the war was over. In Lviv/Lvov/Lemberg a Pogrom lasted for three days, 72 Jews losing their lives and hundreds being wounded. The government made no effort to maintain order, and subsequently attempted to throw the blame on the Jews. In 1919 there were more Pogroms (Warsaw, Vilna and other places), in which General Haller’s volunteers were conspicuous. The representatives of the Jews of the allied nations who met in Paris during the peace negotiations at Versailles were prevailed to fall in with the idea of autonomy for the Jews in the ‘liberated’ areas. Minority rights for the Polish Jews were included in the treaty of peace. At the request of the Jewish representatives British and American commissions were sent to Poland to investigate the charges of atrocities committed against the Jews. But, neither the definite suggestions for the establishment of real equality made by the Englishman, Sir Stuart Samuel, nor the partial exoneration of Poland by the American, Henry Morgenthau Sen. Had any effect on the situation. The Russian war of 1920 gave occasion for more excesses by the Polish Troops. Exercising their political rights under the new constitution, the Jews elected eleven members of the Polish Seym in 1920 , 34 deputies and 12 senators in 1922, and 13 deputies and 6 senators in 1928. To strengthen their influence upon the government these representatives constituted themselves into a Jewish Club (Kolo ). Anti-Jewish propaganda and government policy continued and increased. Government monopoly was extended into various trades and branches of commerce, thereby seriously interfering with Jewish Occupations. The silent policy of the government showed itself in the refusal to employ Jews in these monopolies. A movement to boycott Jewish business grew in intensity. At the same time the tax burden was made heavier upon the middle class to the advantage of the peasants. The results were the ruin of small merchants and unemployment amongst the artisans who formed 40% of the Jewish population ( 1930). The small Jewish agricultural population about 20,000 families in 1933 was also in a precarious situation. Moreover minority rights were not respected. Student rioting against Jews became a common occurrence. The accession to power of General Pilsudski in 1926 improved the situation to some extent, but the growing impoverishment of Polish Jewry was not arrested. Help from abroad especially the U.S.A., occupational redistribution and emigration were the only means which kept the vast numbers from starvation.Under the Minority Clause of the treaty that re-constituted an independent Poland the Jews exercised their right to open schools of their own in which the language of instruction was Polish, Hebrew, or Yiddish. In 1930 there were 565 Jewish elementary schools. On the whole Jewish Life stood under the influence of Orthodoxy, the assimilationist group having lost influence completely. Internal Jewish politics, however, was chaotic because of the numerous parties. Chassidism, Agudists, Mizrachists, Zionists of all shades, Diaspora Nationalists, Bundists and many others.